Wednesday, May 10, 2023


During my early years, when I was trying to learn Carnatic music, my teacher talked about how a melakarta raga’s notes can be determined by the full name of the raga, essentially from the first two syllables. This was amazing to me then, and it continues to be fantastic. This was based on the Katapayadi system. 

Like it’s said, the best way to learn something is to teach it; at least, Richard Bach said it; and I’m guessing it was in his book “Jonathan Livingston Seagull.”

So, what exactly is the Katapayadi system? Let’s dive into it, er…with a little bit of help from my friends, Wiki and Chat GPT, and the internet in general. 

What is the Katapayadi system?

The Katapayadi system is a numerical notation system used in ancient India to represent numbers using letters of the alphabet. The system is believed to have originated in the Vedic period and was used for various purposes, such as writing poetry, mathematical calculations, and representing numbers in inscriptions.

Origins of the Katapayadi System

The origins of the Katapayadi system can be traced back to the Vedic period in India. The Vedas, the oldest Hindu scriptures, contain verses that use letters to represent numbers. This system was later developed and refined by Indian scholars and mathematicians to create the Katapayadi system.

Practical Usage of the Katapayadi System

The Katapayadi system was used for various purposes, such as writing poetry, mathematical calculations, and representing numbers in inscriptions. In poetry, the system was used to create numerical codes for words and phrases, which allowed poets to write poems that were easy to remember and recite. In mathematics, the system was used to represent numbers more compactly, making calculations easier. Finally, in inscriptions, the system was used to represent numbers in a way that was easy to understand, even for those unfamiliar with the numerals used in India at the time.

Examples of the Katapayadi System

The Katapayadi system is an integral part of India’s cultural heritage. It is a testament to ancient India’s mathematical and linguistic prowess and continues to be studied and appreciated by scholars and enthusiasts alike. Although the system is no longer in widespread use, it remains an essential part of India’s rich history and cultural legacy.

Cracking the Melakarta Raga Codes with the Katapayadi System in Carnatic Music

In Carnatic music, the Katapayadi system offers an intriguing way to decode the Melakarta ragas, the foundational scales that form the backbone of this rich musical tradition. Named using specific syllables, the first two syllables of a Melakarta raga reveal its number when decoded using this ancient Indian numerical system.

The process of decoding the ragas and understanding their structure involves several steps. First, the two constant notes in every raga are ‘Sa’ and ‘Pa.’ The remaining notes, ‘Ri,’ ‘Ga,’ ‘Ma,’ ‘Da,’ and ‘Ni,’ are derived from the Melakarta number.

The first 36 Melakarta ragas feature ‘Ma1,’ while the remaining 36, numbered 37 through 72, include ‘Ma2.’

To determine the positions of the ‘Ri’ and ‘Ga’ notes, subtract one from the Melakarta number and divide the result by six. The integral part of the quotient provides the ‘Ri’ and ‘Ga’ positions. If the Melakarta number exceeds 36, subtract 36 before performing this calculation.

The remainder from the same division operation determines the ‘Da’ and ‘Ni’ positions.

Let us illustrate these rules with a couple of examples:

  1. Raga Dheerasankarabharanam: The Katapayadi system assigns the value of 9 to ‘Dha’ and 2 to ‘Ra,’ resulting in a Melakarta number of 29 (reversing ’92’). As 29 is less than 36, Dheerasankarabharanam has ‘Ma1.’ When 28 (1 less than 29) is divided by 6, the quotient is 4, and the remainder is 4. Hence, this raga features ‘Ri2,’ ‘Ga3,’ ‘Da2,’ and ‘Ni3.’ Therefore, the full scale of this raga is ‘Sa Ri2 Ga3 Ma1 Pa Da2 Ni3 SA.’
  2. Raga Mechakalyani: According to the coding scheme, ‘Ma’ corresponds to 5 and ‘Cha’ to 6, yielding a Melakarta number of 65 (reversing ’56’). As 65 is greater than 36, Mechakalyani features ‘Ma2.’ Subtracting 36 from 65 gives us 29. Dividing 28 (1 less than 29) by 6 gives a quotient and remainder of 4, leading to ‘Ri2,’ ‘Ga3,’ ‘Da2,’ and ‘Ni3.’ Thus, Mechakalyani’s note sequence is ‘Sa Ri2 Ga3 Ma2 Pa Da2 Ni3 SA.’

An interesting exception to these rules is the raga Simhendramadhyamam. Using the conventional calculation, ‘Sa’ (7) and ‘Ha’ (8) would result in the number 87 rather than the correct Melakarta number 57. To correct this anomaly., the name should be ‘Sihmendramadhyamam,’ treating ‘Ma’ as 5, yielding the correct Melakarta number, 57.

In summary, the Katapayadi system offers a unique method to understand the structure of Melakarta ragas in Carnatic music, blending language, mathematics, and music fascinatingly. 

Despite occasional exceptions, this system remains essential for Carnatic music enthusiasts and practitioners.

Tuesday, May 9, 2023

 Unlocking the Divine Power: The God Frequency of 963 Hz


The world is abuzz with "The God Frequency," a term coined to describe a specific sound frequency, 963 Hz, believed to possess extraordinary healing and transformative powers. This elusive frequency is said to resonate with the natural frequency of the universe, opening a gateway to spiritual growth, healing, and self-realization. So let's delve into the mystical world of sound frequencies and discover the magic of 963 Hz.

The Power of Sound Frequencies

Sound frequencies have long been known to have healing and spiritual growth. The ancient Indian tradition of yoga, for example, has used sound frequencies, or "mantras," for thousands of years to promote meditation and mental focus. Similarly, the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese used sound therapy to treat various ailments and enhance spiritual development.

Modern science has also recognized the potential of sound frequencies in promoting wellness. For example, studies have shown that specific frequencies can help alleviate stress, enhance concentration, and even promote the production of certain hormones. The God Frequency of 963 Hz is a unique frequency that has captured the attention of spiritual seekers and healers alike.

The God Frequency of 963 Hz

The 963 Hz frequency is often called the "God Frequency" because it is believed to resonate with the natural frequency of the universe. This frequency is said to have powerful healing properties, promote spiritual growth, and facilitate deep meditation. But what makes the God Frequency genuinely unique? Let's explore some examples of how this mysterious frequency can transform your life.

1. Deep Healing and Regeneration

When exposed to the 963 Hz frequency, the body and mind are said to enter a state of deep relaxation, allowing the healing process to commence. This frequency helps repair damaged tissues, reduce inflammation, and stimulate the production of endorphins, promoting a sense of well-being and happiness. Many healers and practitioners use the God Frequency to assist in physical and emotional healing.

2. Spiritual Growth and Enlightenment

The God Frequency is said to help individuals connect with their higher selves and open themselves to spiritual experiences. In addition, this frequency aids in releasing energy blockages and balancing chakras, allowing for a free flow of energy throughout the body. As a result, individuals may experience increased intuition, heightened creativity, and profound spiritual insights.

3. Enhanced Meditation and Mental Clarity

Meditating with the 963 Hz frequency can lead to more profound relaxation and mental clarity. As the mind becomes more focused and calm, it becomes easier to access the subconscious mind and explore one's inner world. In addition, many individuals who use the God Frequency during meditation report increased feelings of peace, love, and oneness with the universe.

4. Manifesting Desires

The 963 Hz frequency is also said to be a powerful tool for manifesting desires and aligning oneself with the natural abundance of the universe. Individuals can raise their vibrational frequency by meditating with this frequency and attracting more positive experiences.


The God Frequency of 963 Hz holds the potential to unlock the divine power within each of us, transforming our lives through healing, spiritual growth, and self-realization. Whether you are a seasoned spiritual seeker or just beginning your journey, incorporating the 963 Hz frequency into your meditation and healing practices may be the key to unlocking a world of profound wisdom and limitless possibilities.

Monday, May 8, 2023

The mixolydian scale is C D E F G A Bb. Its key signature has 1 flat.

Khamaj thaat Sargam notation is Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa'

Harikamboji ragam in Carnatic: Sa ri2 ga3 ma1 pa da2 ni2 

First off, let's talk about the Mixolydian scale. This scale is characterized by a flatted seventh degree, which gives it a slightly bluesy sound. It's often used in rock, blues, and folk music and can be heard in classic tunes like "Sweet Home Alabama" and "Stairway to Heaven." But did you know that the Mixolydian scale also has a home in Hindustani music? That's right, folks - the ragas of Hindustani music often use a similar flatted seventh degree, known as the komal nishaad. And just like in the Mixolydian scale, this note gives the raga a distinct, bluesy flavor.

Stairway to Heaven - Led Zeppelin

But the similarities don't stop there. Another hallmark of the Mixolydian scale is its use of dominant seventh chords, adding spicy, unresolved tension to the music. And wouldn't you know it, Hindustani music has a similar trick up its sleeve - the use of vadi and samvadi notes, which create a similar sense of tension and release. For example, in the raga Yaman, the vadi note is the natural fourth (ma), and the samvadi note is the natural second (re). These notes create a tension resolved when the music returns to the tonic (sa).

But the most humorous similarity between the Mixolydian scale and Hindustani music is their shared love of improvisation. In the Mixolydian scale, musicians are encouraged to play around with the flatted seventh degree, adding their unique flavor to the music. And in Hindustani music, improvisation is not just encouraged - it's practically required! Musicians are expected to take the basic structure of the raga and make it their own, adding their own flourishes and embellishments along the way. So really, when you think about it, Mixolydian scales and Hindustani ragas are like musical playgrounds - places where musicians can let their imaginations run wild and create something truly unique.

In conclusion, the Mixolydian scale and Hindustani music ragas may seem like an odd pairing at first glance, but they share a surprising number of similarities upon closer inspection. From their use of flatted seventh degrees to their love of improvisation, these musical styles are more alike than you might think. So the next time you find yourself noodling around in the Mixolydian scale or exploring a Hindustani raga, remember - you're not so different.

Thursday, May 4, 2023

 Title: "A Symphony of Ragas: A Playful Introduction to Classical Indian Music"


Welcome to our whimsical world of classical Indian music, where we'll explore the vibrant colors and captivating rhythms that have been enchanting listeners for centuries! Our journey will take us through the basics of this rich and multifaceted musical tradition while sharing some fun anecdotes and fascinating insights. Are you ready to embark on a musical adventure? Let's get started!

1. Ragas: The Melodic Framework

In classical Indian music, "raga" refers to melodic rules guiding improvisation and composition. Each raga is like a unique musical landscape, with its mood, emotions, and distinct personality. There are hundreds of ragas, some dating back over a thousand years! As you explore this mesmerizing world, you'll be delighted by the sheer variety and depth of emotions they can evoke. 

Fun fact: Did you know that some ragas are associated with specific times of day or seasons? For example, the Raga Bhairavi is often performed in the early morning, while Raga Malhar is linked to the monsoon season. So, when you listen to these ragas, you'll be transported to a different time and place, all through the power of music!

2. Talas: The Rhythmic Framework

Now, let's add a beat to our melody! Talas are the rhythmic cycles that form the foundation of classical Indian music. A tala can consist of any number of beats, ranging from 3 to 108! Each tala has a particular arrangement of accented and unaccented beats, which gives it its unique character. 

Fun fact: In a live performance, you'll often see the audience and musicians clapping or tapping their hands to keep track of the tala. This interactive element brings everyone together and adds a sense of camaraderie to the performance. So, the next time you attend a classical Indian music concert, don't be shy about joining in!

3. Instruments: The Voice of Tradition

Classical Indian music boasts diverse instruments that bring the ragas and talas to life. From the soulful strains of the sitar and sarod to the captivating beats of the tabla and mridangam, these instruments have been lovingly crafted and perfected over centuries.

Talk about divine inspiration! Fun fact: The veena, one of the oldest Indian instruments, is said to have religious origins. According to Hindu mythology, it was created by Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, music, and the arts.

4. Classical Indian Music in Modern Times

As we fast-forward to the present day, we find classical Indian music alive and well, with contemporary musicians and composers breathing new life into this ancient tradition. From fusion genres like Indo-jazz to mesmerizing collaborations with Western classical musicians, classical Indian music continues to evolve and enchant listeners worldwide.

Fun fact: Did you know that George Harrison, the lead guitarist of The Beatles, was a great admirer of Indian classical music? He even took sitar lessons from the legendary maestro Ravi Shankar, resulting in the famous sitar-infused track "Norwegian Wood."


Our playful journey through the world of classical Indian music has only just scratched the surface. With its ancient roots, rich emotional tapestry, and diverse range of instruments, this musical tradition offers a never-ending source of inspiration and delight. So, explore this enchanting world further — who knows what magical melodies await?